Standards for designing adaptive learning environments
The process of designing learning environments in general and adaptive learning in particular in the light of educational, technical and general standards are among the main factors that increase the effectiveness of these environments, and therefore the role of the educational designer for these environments is considered one of the influential roles.
Hence, he must be aware of those special criteria associated with the design of those environments, which are based on some learning theories, in a way that helps the learner to easily use the environment, and increase his motivation and interaction to achieve better learning.
This is consistent with what Swidan’s study (2010, p. 133) indicated that attention should be given to design and production standards for e-learning environments, and that employing these standards when designing the various elements that are included in those environments helps to increase their efficiency, which results in the achievement of outputs and various educational outcomes.
The criteria for designing and producing adaptive learning environments are varied; Some of them are educational standards and technical standards; The technical standards include a set of sub-standards for spoken sound, sound effects, music, still and moving images, and standards for written texts and colors within those environments, in addition to standards for screen design within those environments.
By looking at different writings and studies, the following criteria can be identified:
1 – Educational standards in the design of adaptive learning 
*. Clarity of students’ general educational goals, and then translating these goals into a set of other behavioral goals that can be measured and observed.
*. Determine educational objectives at the beginning of each subject.
*. Procedural educational objectives and their ability to be observed and measured.
*. Formulate instructions and instructions in a simple and understandable way for students.
*. Determining the entrance behavior or describing the previous requirements of the learner because of their importance in determining the starting point in the design.
*. Provide interaction between the teacher and the learner, and between the learners and each other within those environments according to the nature of the content, and in accordance with the characteristics of the learners.
*. The educational content is suitable for the students’ level in terms of age, experience, cultural background, achievement and academic level, educational stage, and individual differences.
*. Customizing and adapting various educational paths according to the actual needs of the learner.
*. Diversity in ways of displaying scientific content in line with learners’ characteristics.
*. Arranging educational topics so that there are main topics and other sub-topics related to it.
*. Allow students to learn at their own pace and according to their abilities.
*. Providing a sufficient number of educational activities and alternatives that are compatible with the characteristics of the learners.
*. To provide the electronic content with a set of links to various learning resources that contribute to enriching this content.
*. Preparing formative evaluation tools within the electronic content units.
*. Determine the tests and their inclusion of the content, in addition to the feedback in terms of the way it is presented and its diversity.
*. Preparing the post-evaluation to ensure that students achieve the educational goals.
*. Identifying the learner’s weaknesses and providing him with the appropriate treatment according to his tendencies and aptitudes.
*. Provide a treatment plan for the student who fails to study part of the content.
*. Providing an information enrichment plan for the student who skillfully achieved the objectives of the content units.
2- General criteria in the design of adaptive learning:
A set of general criteria associated with the design of adaptive learning environments can be identified in the following
- Provide instructions and instructions icon in a prominent place in the adaptive learning environment.
- Ease of entry and exit from the electronic environment.
- Ease of navigation and navigation within the learning environment,
- commensurate with the characteristics of the learners.
- Providing aid and support tools for students during learning.
- Ease and flexibility of dealing with the learning environment.
- Providing the ability to control the display of educational content.
- The ability to move freely within the educational environment.
- The presence of a user guide for the adaptive learning environment.
- That research tools be available within the adaptive learning environment.
- The learning environment includes links to different learning resources.
- That these links be in various forms (texts – images – videos) and others.
- Mark these links with a different color or underline them.
- Organize items on the screen logically.
- The reliability of the system and the adaptive environment in terms of the possibility of updating it, and maintaining the confidentiality and security of student information.
- Diversity in presenting content within the adaptive learning environment, to suit a large number of learners and their learning styles, with audio, images, videos, navigation links, and animations.
- There should be a summary of the content that helps achieve the learning objectives.
- Diversity of educational activities within the learning environment.
3- Technical criteria in the design of adaptive learning:
A set of technical standards associated with multimedia design (images, graphics/texts/colors) within the adaptive learning environment can be identified as follows:
A – Technical standards for pictures and drawings:
- The pictures and drawings should be simple, and avoid using pictures and drawings with many different details.
- Use familiar pictures and drawings, and avoid using unfamiliar pictures and drawings for students.
- Considering the close connection between the selected images and graphics and the textual content.
- Provides the ability to enlarge and reduce images and graphics.
- Distribute images and graphics on the screen appropriately.
- To use pictures and graphics functionally within the learning environment according to the educational need for them.
- Using various allusions appropriate to the scientific content.
- The pictures and drawings must be of high definition and clarity.
- Observe the color accuracy of pictures and graphics within the adaptive learning environment.
B- Technical standards for written texts:
A set of technical criteria associated with the design of written texts can be identified as follows:
- Texts appear within the learning environment clearly and legibly.
- The texts are grammatically correct.
- The texts should have clear meanings and avoid ambiguous or complex terms.
- Note the use of punctuation marks in writing.
- The important word or phrase is identified by shading, underlining it, or by changing the color of its writing from the main color of the text.
- To follow one type of writing line in writing the main titles.
- To follow one type of writing line in writing sub-headings.
- Follow one line of writing for detailed writings (Matn).
- Allocate one font for writing the main headings, one font for writing the subheadings, and one font for writing the body.
- Avoid unusual or ornate fonts, especially in text writing.
- Use different text effects, in an appropriate manner.
C- Standards related to color design within the adaptive learning environment:
A set of general criteria associated with color within the adaptive learning environment can be identified as follows:
- Employ the uses of colors within the environment appropriately.
- Use colors to connect similar elements.
- Use colors to highlight certain elements to focus attention on them.
- Consider the contrast between adjacent colors.
- Avoid using annoying, conflicting colors.
- Use natural and familiar colors.
- To use appropriate colors that are not stressful for the eye.
- Uniform color for all headlines.
- There should be a uniform color for all subheadings.
- There should be a uniform color for the board.
- Avoid crowding educational content with too many colors.
Here, it can be said that those criteria for designing adaptive learning environments of all kinds, if taken into account when designing those environments, can help achieve the targeted educational outcomes.