Types and styles of adaptive learning
By reviewing some of the literature, research and studies that dealt with adaptive learning, the researcher concluded that each of these studies dealt with adaptive learning from a specific aspect and according to a special nature. That is why different types of adaptive learning have emerged, and these types can be presented as follows:
1- Types of adaptive learning in terms of content:
Khamis (2014, p. 2) indicates that there are two types of adaptive content
*. Adaptable (manual) content: This type of adaptation is in which the system is able to adjust the settings manually by the learner, by controlling the required content, the way it is presented, font type, size, colors, and so on.
*. Adaptive (automated) content: In this type of adaptation, the system adjusts itself automatically based on the actions of the learner, that is, through the formation of the system for a broad base of information that pertains to the learner, and in light of that it provides the learner with what is appropriate for him.
Among the studies that dealt with this type of adaptation, the study of Al-Saedi (2019), which sought to identify which types of electronic content (adaptive electronic content) versus (adaptive electronic content) are better for developing programming skills, and developing students’ attitudes towards the provided electronic content, The results of the study found that there was a statistically significant difference at the level of significance (0.05) between the average scores of the first experimental group that used (adaptive electronic content) and the average scores of the second experimental group that used (adaptive electronic content) in the post-application of the achievement test, the note card, And the attitude scale associated with programming skills using ready-made programs for the benefit of the second experimental group.
2 – Types of adaptive learning in terms of levels of adaptation.
*. The first level: Initial: This type of adaptation is called false or delusional adaptation. At this level, educational content is presented through a set of different multimedia to take into account individual differences among learners, without presenting models to the student or taking into account any of the learning styles or preference patterns of the learners.
*. Second level: simple: this level is related to processing and readiness, as this type of adaptation takes into account very limited variables from the individual differences between learners, because each individual has different characteristics through the application of learning methods, and accordingly the adaptation takes place by presenting the content only with its corresponding Student learning styles.
*. The third level: This type of adaptation is called advanced or joint adaptation: this type of adaptation takes into account more than one variable of individual differences among learners, and includes some common adaptive methods that are employed within the adaptive learning environment; It is represented in the methods of displaying content, patterns of activity, interactions between learners, interaction interfaces, navigation patterns, and observation of the system for the learner. The current research adopts this level of adaptation; This is due to taking into account more than one variable of individual differences among learners, in addition to the possibility of diversity in displaying electronic content, activity patterns and interactions within the environment in light of learning styles and learners’ preference patterns.
*. The fourth level: the most advanced or intelligent: this type is also called dynamic adaptation: this level is characterized by its adoption of the generation of intelligent adaptive systems, which include everything necessary to meet individual differences between learners, and apply all the necessary adaptive methods to accommodate these differences, providing the user model, as well as It is dynamic and constantly updated by monitoring student work; In terms of progress and errors, the system’s functions are adaptable, allowing the system to update itself without external interference, and it uses modern technologies in assessing emotional states of students and tracking eye and gestures, but these systems have a high production cost in addition to the need for a specialized team.
3- Types of adaptive learning in terms of adaptation models:
There is a set of models or elements for adaptive learning, where adaptive learning depends on those elements and models in order to achieve its goals, these models are as follows.
*. The Learner Model: In this model of adaptation, attention is paid to the learner’s characteristics, learning style, previous knowledge, learning patterns, and preferences. It also stores all information about the learner in terms of his cultural background and educational habits, in addition to the procedures he performs during his learning within the The system, such as monitoring and storing the pages visited and the tasks completed, its answers to test questions and questionnaires, and its reactions to learning activities, and takes into account that this is accurately determined; As it is the basis on which adaptive learning is based, and identifying the individual characteristics of the learner helps in providing contents that suit these characteristics in their various aspects.
*. Content or domain: This model refers to the method in which the content is organized, as the content model identifies the learning objectives, its sequence, and the tasks that must be performed. Usually, the learning content is structured and categorized hierarchically, starting from main general units, then dividing each unit into several sub-chapters. Each chapter consists of a set of topics, each topic has its own learning objectives, each objective has its own set of diverse sources and resources, and each resource consists of a different number of data and tags associated with it.
*. Adaptation mechanism model: This type of adaptation depends on the strategy used in implementing adaptation decisions, where the learning strategies used are identified, and the procedural steps that will be followed during learning, which enable the system to choose the appropriate content for the learner, and to choose and implement learning activities. It can be adapted to the learning environment, when and how to adapt, as well as identifying content entities and its various components. Learning objects are also chosen and how to present them to learners in an adaptive and diverse manner. All this is done in light of learners’ preferences, previous experiences, and learning styles.
4 – Types of adaptive learning in terms of presentation:
Studies indicated that the way information is presented in adaptive learning is divided into two main parts
A – Adaptive Presentation:
Adaptive presentation means diversity in the way visual stimuli are presented when presented to the learner by hiding or showing some details, in light of the learners’ characteristics and learning styles. There are several methods that help achieve this, namely:
*. Conditional text: means controlling the amount of textual information, or textual spaces associated with one of the concepts in the course, and this is done in light of the student’s level and his ability to comprehend.
*. Flexible text: The flexible text means designing a set of concepts or terms in the course in the form of active or flexible active words. When the learner clicks on it, a window appears showing additional and explanatory information related to it, or directing the learner to specific sources related to this concept or term.
*. Page Variants: In this type of presentation, a term or a specific concept related to the educational course is linked to a different set of pages that clarify this concept or direct the learner to different sources on different pages. Each page is linked to a specific source related to this concept. According to the learner’s level and learning style.
*. Eragment Variants: Each page is divided into a number of diverse sections, and several different contents are prepared for each section, so that the appropriate content is chosen according to each learner’s learning style.
*. Basic frameworks: Frame Base A concept of the educational course is displayed in the form of pop-up frames, which are linked to different contents of the same concept or other frameworks, so that the appropriate framework is selected and displayed for the characteristics of each learner.
*. Visual elements: It includes various elements such as sound, video, effects, images and graphics.
B – Adaptive Navigation:
Adaptive navigation technology aims to support the learner during his navigation and transition between content elements, by changing and adapting the form of navigation links, by displaying and hiding links, arranging them and diversifying navigation methods, comments on them and direct guidance, all this is done in light of the characteristics of learners and their learning styles And their level of knowledge, and studies indicate that there are several methods that help to achieve this, namely:
Where hyperlinks within the electronic content are provided with additional comments or visual hints with the aim of providing the learner with information that allows them to know their content before choosing them, and it can be in the form of texts in different shapes and colors, or an icon.
There are three types of comments, which are History-based Annotaions, to indicate that this link has been visited before; knowledge-based annotations used to indicate the learner’s cognitive state by topic linked to the hyperlink; Prerequisite-based Annotations are used to define concepts of basic educational requirements for each page, according to the cognitive state of each learner, and appear in the form of a “help” button that the learner presses if he wants to see the knowledge background of the displayed concept.
In which the links are arranged and displayed based on the importance of the pages to the learner, so that the order of the links is unstable, and a link is usually placed at the beginning of the list indicating their importance, as the time to reach the goal is limited by placing the best result at the beginning of the search list and reducing the cognitive load on the student .
Hide Links: Hide Links
Hiding links helps to control the amount of information during the navigation process in order to reduce the cognitive overload of the learner. This method is used with all types of links, by hiding buttons or some items in the list of topics and converting links from active words to passive plain text.
It is one of the best ways to provide the learner with adaptive navigation, as these links benefit the learner in directing the student to the best links that he can benefit from in studying the content.
A map is displayed for the learner that reflects the general structure of the hyperlinks between the elements of the educational content, and determines his position within this space, and technology is used to hide links, comments, and direct guidance to support the method of displaying the curriculum map.
5- Types of adaptive learning in terms of content design:
In it, one of the different concepts of the educational content is displayed in the form of different screens. The learner chooses the appropriate medium for his learning style, in addition to the interaction interface, its shape, background, fonts and colors, and it is divided into two basic forms.
*. The overall design of the content: It means displaying the educational content with its various elements (texts, images, videos, audio, links) within one screen in a contiguous and integrated manner, leaving the learner free to choose the elements that suit his learning style from within this screen.
*. Sequential design of content: It means displaying educational content with its various elements (texts, images, video, audio, links) within several sequential screens, and the learner has the freedom to choose and move between these screens in a way that suits his learning style and method.