Theoretical Foundations of Adaptive Learning Environments

 Theoretical Foundations of Adaptive Learning Environments

Theoretical Foundations of Adaptive Learning Environments

Adaptive learning is based on a set of theoretical foundations and principles that support and support it and explain the learning processes in these environments. These foundations and principles can be presented as follows:

1- Principles of Constructivism Theory[1]:

The constructivist theory of learning relies on the adaptations resulting in the learner’s functional knowledge systems, so that the learner builds his knowledge based on his previous experiences, and on the basis that the function of knowledge is to adapt to the organization of the perceptible world, and that adaptation results from a balance between representation and alignment.

That is, when the learner is exposed to an experience, he either represents it or fits with it, and if he finds it compatible with one of the mental images he has, then he has represented it, and sometimes it is so difficult that he cannot represent it, in the structure of his understanding and then he tries to adapt to this new experience. , and this is the alignment process.

Also, one of the important principles of constructivism is not to impose goals and activities on the learners in advance. It is not the teacher who decides the goals and activities, but rather the learner, which makes them meaningful to him, makes him feel ownership of education, and increases his motivation, active participation, and involvement in the learning environment.

Learning from the point of view of scholars of constructivist theory is a meaningful process, but it differs from one individual to another depending on the nature of learning, the tasks assigned to it, and the nature of the interaction that occurs between the student and his educational environment, and knowledge is built by each learner within the framework of his understanding, through active steps. in the educational process.

And learners in this case depend on themselves in building knowledge by linking new information with their previous knowledge instead of accepting information from the teacher.

A group of educational testimonies related to this theory can be extracted as follows:

  • Helping the learner build knowledge on his own.
  • The freedom of the learner to build his own concepts and knowledge in the light of the objectives set.
  • Paying attention to the previous background of the learner and making it the starting point for the new content.
  • Paying attention to interaction and sharing among learners.
  • Interest in educational activities compatible with the nature of the learners.
  • Guidance and direction for the learner’s performance, and help him to access new information that can be employed in different situations in the light of his previous information. The learner in the constructivist theory learns if he is provided with guiding information than he is left alone to explore and learn new concepts and knowledge.

2- Principles of Equivalency Theory (2):

Which refers to an educational environment that provides different instructional strategies, diverse learning resources, activities tailored to each learner, and different learning experiences, including what can be seen, heard, practiced, or felt; Which helps to reinforce and support learning.

Where learners differ in their learning methods, and they have different knowledge backgrounds that require a diverse mixture of learning experiences in order to achieve parity among learners.

A group of educational testimonies related to this theory can be extracted as follows:

  • Providing a range of different and varied educational strategies that support the learning process.
  • Providing a range of diverse educational resources that enrich the learning process.
  • provide tailored learning activities for each learner; What works on the learner’s positivity in the learning situation.
  • Provide diverse and equal teaching and learning experiences.
  • Diversification in displaying multimedia within the learning environment..

  3- Principles of Cognitive Theory: [3]

Which focuses on the knowledge structure of the learner and how to build it for him, and thus encourages him to be an active participant, and takes into account the individual differences among learners, and the importance of taking into account the learning style of each learner, and attention to mental processes, and depends on storing knowledge in the learner’s memory and retrieving it in new situations .

A group of educational testimonies related to this theory can be extracted as follows:

  • Taking into account the individual differences among the learners.
  • Attention to the entrances and methods of each learner.
  • Attention to the mental processes of the learner.
  • Focusing on the knowledge structure of the learner when building the educational content, as this is the basis on which adaptive learning is based in providing learning that suits the learners and takes into account the differences between them.

 4- Principles of Motivational Design Theory ([4]): (Motivational Design Theory

Where scholars of this theory believe that learning processes must provide strategies that meet the needs of learners within an adaptive environment to ensure continuity of learning by testing applications suitable for each educational situation such as providing activities, tasks and assignments that encourage learners to apply information in practical situations.

A group of educational testimonies related to this theory can be extracted as follows:

  • Diversifying educational activities that serve educational content.
  • Diversifying tasks and assignments provided to learners.
  • Attention to the applied and practical aspects.
  • Providing educational situations and applications that ensure the learner’s continuity in learning.

 5- Principles of Behavioral Theory:[5]

Which believes that behavior is a set of habits that the individual learns and acquires during the stages of his growth and whose formation is controlled by the laws of the mind, which are the forces of desistance, and the forces of excitation that affect the set of responses that the learner makes, and they attribute this to the environmental factors that the individual is exposed to.

The theory revolves around the axis of learning in the acquisition of the new, and therefore most human behavior is acquired through learning, and therefore the behavior of the individual is subject to modification and change by creating specific educational conditions and atmosphere.

 A group of educational testimonies related to this theory can be extracted as follows:

  • Modifying learners’ behavior and experiences by providing appropriate content and skills related to the proposed unit.
  • Pay attention to the responses provided by the learner.
  • Taking into account the student’s growth, preparations, tendencies and experiences.
  • Providing the appropriate reinforcement for the learner in light of the goals he achieves.
  • Diversifying methods and methods of reinforcement in proportion to the tendencies of the learners.
  • Supporting the content provided to learners with stimuli through various media (audio, image, video, still graphics, animation, etc.).

 6- Principles of Adaptive Structure Theory [6]: (Theory Structuration Adaptive)

Where this theory emphasizes that various educational technology applications can achieve a number of organizational changes within the adaptive learning environment by providing media that encourages and motivates learners to reproduce the contents presented to them and access new knowledge products.

 This is because the educational media, when provided adaptively, meets the needs of the learners according to their different learning style, which explains that the more adaptation is available, the more this will greatly help the progress of learners towards more dynamic knowledge production processes and related to the learning contents.

 A group of educational testimonies related to this theory can be extracted as follows:

  • Availability of a variety of multimedia that simplifies the educational content.
  • Organizing these media in a way that suits the characteristics of the learners and takes into account their individual differences.
  • Adapting the learning environment to help learners progress in achieving their educational goals.
  • The more adaptation processes, the more knowledge production processes, the more dynamic and related to the educational content.

7- Principles of Cognitive Inferential Learning Theory:[7]

which provided a practical framework for understanding the cognitive beliefs that may influence an individual’s learning; Where the term epistemology refers to how individuals learn, and their view on the nature of information or knowledge.

This theory emphasizes the influence of previous experience and motivation on the learner’s performance in current learning situations, and thus personal cognitive beliefs form part of that previous experience or experience.

A group of educational testimonies related to this theory can be extracted as follows:

  • Attention to the cognitive beliefs of the learners.
  • Pay attention to how an individual learns, not how much.
  • Pay attention to the opinions and viewpoints of the learners and make them a priority.
  • Paying attention to the practical aspects of education.