Capital of India before New Delhi
New Delhi is the current capital of India, and it is the second capital in India after Mumbai. It is located in the north of the country and is the seat of the presidencies of the legislative and judicial authorities in India.
About the capital of India before New Delhi:
The capital is Calcutta, the largest city in India, and the city was established in 1690 AD, and its population has reached 4,486,679 people. The city is located on the eastern bank of the Hooghly River, and it is a crossing point from water to land, and from the river to the sea because it is 154 km away. from the Bay of Bengal.
And that the city of Calcutta developed and became the cultural center in eastern India because of its fame in trade, transportation, and manufacturing. the city is striving; With the aim of highlighting a unique identity for the city after its separation from British colonialism.
Calcutta has a tropical climate; Therefore, the weather is warm throughout the year, and the temperatures are different, so the temperature is 38 degrees Celsius in April, May, and 27 degrees Celsius in December and January, which leads to tourists choosing the winter season; to visit instead of summer.
The average annual rainfall in Calcutta is about 1,625 mm, and the rain is concentrated during the monsoon period, and the rains are heavy, which makes it a very wet period. The rains are relatively less in the winter, and the sun’s rays are suitable for going out, and the temperatures are moderate, and it is cooler at night times, when the night temperature is about 15 degrees Celsius.
It had economic importance through its strategic location as a major port; And it has an important role in the Indian financial markets and the city is known for its financial and commercial activities, printing and publishing, and it is famous for many products, including: tea, coal, tobacco, textiles, Indian jute, and others. There has been a problem of unemployment since the fifties, despite the great economic activity in the city.
Education in Calcutta
There are many Indian schools that teach the official languages in India, which are English and Bengali, and there are also many major institutes and universities, such as the Bengali University of Engineering and Science, the Institute of Research and Marine Engineering, and many private institutions that are concerned with various fields of life and which are popular with seekers of knowledge, so it flourished Education in it, in addition to three universities in which cultural exchange, learning languages, and knowledge take place, and these universities are:
P University of Jadvpur: which is considered one of the best universities in India, as it is a university specialized in the field of engineering, scientific training, and conducting scientific research, and it is found in permanent development and growth.
PUniversity of Calcutta.
Rhindra Bharati University.
Calcutta School, or High School.
Sports activities in Kolkata
There are many games in it because it is the center of sports activity in India, and there is also a class of activists interested in popular games such as football and hockey, and it is characterized by the presence of the largest stadium specialized in the game of football in the world.
Tourism and economy in Kolkata
This city suffered from the tragedy of poverty for a period of time, but the economic situation quickly recovered again in a city that relies in its economy on a number of local resources, the most important of which are: consumer industries, local productions, the most important of which is the jute industry, the clothing and shoe industry, and mining. Calcutta includes the largest stock exchange site in India, so it includes many investors, and it has the largest port and international airport, because it includes most of the largest Indian companies.
There are many landmarks in this city such as museums, places of worship, opera houses, and the Grand Palace in the middle of the city, and there are the largest shopping centers, cafes and cinemas, and it has a number of beautiful gardens in which flowers are grown in a way that attracts visitors, and there are also many restaurants and hotels that offer the most luxurious Ancient Indian food.
Literary arts in the city of Calcutta
Due to the appreciation of its people for the various types of culture, arts and new literature, it has become the capital of Indian culture, and is considered the cradle for the launch of Indian literature.
The most important buildings in the city of Kolkata
The Victoria Memorial Hall, established in 1921, is a huge building of elegant architecture and white marble design, located in Meydan Park on the bank of the Hooghly River near Churingy Road in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Designed to honor Queen Victoria. It has now been converted into a museum under the Indian Ministry of Culture.